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Adding Functionality

In this part we will add functionality to our Ballot so that:

  • People can vote on proposals
  • People can delegate their votes
  • The chairperson can assign voting rights

Contract Functionality


Let's first update the constructor of our contract. As you can see in the code sample on the right, the constructor now accepts a Option<Vector<String>> parameter. The constructor expects a vector of strings as input. We need to update the constructor so that the provided proposal names are used to create the Proposal objects and added to our ballot storage. To check if the vector containing strings is provided:

    if proposal_name.is_some() {
names = proposal_name.unwrap()
// do somethiing with names


Give Voting Right:

In the previous part we created a function that allowed users to add themselves as a voter. We initialized their voter struct with voter.weight=0 because when a voter is created, he/she has no voting right by default. So, let's create a function give_voting_right that will only allow the chairperson to update the weight to 1 for any given voter. The function will look something like:

    // assuming that the caller is the chair person
pub fn give_voting_right(&mut self, voter_id: AccountId) {
let voter_opt = self.voters.get_mut(&voter_id);
if voter_opt.is_some() {
let voter = voter.unwrap()
// assuming that the voter has not already voted
voter.weight = 1


Now, let's implement a function that will allow users to cast their votes. This function will take a proposal index as input. If the caller is a valid voter and has not already casted his/her vote, update the proposal at index i with the weight of the voter, update voter.voted to true and set to index i.

Get Winning Proposal:

Now that the votes are cast, we will implement a function that will get the name of the winning proposal. In a recall election, the winner is announced once the voting time has passed out. We will leave such implementation to you. For now, we will allow any user to invoke this function and get the name of the winning proposal. Let's implement a function to return the index of the proposal with the maximum votes:

    fn winning_proposal(&self) -> Option<usize> {
let mut winning_vote_vount:u32 = 0;
let mut winning_index: Option<usize> = None;
let mut index: usize = 0;

for val in self.proposals.iter() {
if val.vote_count > winning_vote_vount {
winning_vote_vount = val.vote_count;
winning_index = Some(index);
index += 1

return winning_index

Notice that this function returns Option<usize>, not usize, since it's possible that there are no proposals in the ballot. This function can be used to find the name of winning proposal.


In our voter struct, there is a delegate field defined as Option<AccountId> to allow voters to delegate their vote to someone else. This can be achieved using the following function:

pub fn delegate(&mut self, to: AccountId) {

// account id of the person who invoked the function
let sender_id = self.env().caller();
let sender_weight;
// self delegation is not allowd
assert_ne!(to,sender_id, "Self-delegation is disallowed.");

let sender_opt = self.voters.get_mut(&sender_id);
// the voter invoking the function should exist in our ballot
assert_eq!(sender_opt.is_some(),true, "Caller is not a valid voter");
let sender = sender_opt.unwrap();

// the voter must not have already casted their vote
assert_eq!(sender.voted,false, "You have already voted");

sender.voted = true;
sender.delegate = Some(to);
sender_weight = sender.weight;

let delegate_opt = self.voters.get_mut(&to);
// the person to whom the vote is being delegated must be a valid voter
assert_eq!(delegate_opt.is_some(),true, "The delegated address is not valid");

let delegate = delegate_opt.unwrap();

// the voter should not have already voted
if delegate.voted {
// If the delegate already voted,
// directly add to the number of votes
let voted_to = as usize;
self.proposals[voted_to].vote_count += sender_weight;
} else {
// If the delegate did not vote yet,
// add to her weight.
delegate.weight += sender_weight;

You will see that in the delegation function above, we update the sender.voted and sender.delegate fields prior to checking if the person being delegated is a valid voter. The function will panic if the delegated person is not a valid voter and will roll back the changes made to the sender.voted and sender.delegate fields.

Your Turn!

This wraps up the tutorial. Practice what you learned with the following exercises:

  • Update the constructor function so that if a vector of proposal names is provided, a new proposal object is created and added to ballot.proposal.
  • Define the give_voting_right function as instructed.
  • Add vote functionality and update the ballot according to the template requirements.
  • Update get_winning_proposal_name functionality to return the name of the winning proposal.
#![cfg_attr(not(feature = "std"), no_std)]

use ink_lang as ink;

mod ballot {
// use Hash
use ink_storage::collections::HashMap;
use ink_prelude::vec::Vec;
use ink_storage::traits::{PackedLayout, SpreadLayout};

// Structure to store Proposal information
#[derive(Clone, Debug, scale::Encode, scale::Decode, SpreadLayout, PackedLayout,scale_info::TypeInfo)]
struct Proposal {
name: String,
vote_count: u32,

// Structure to store Proposal information
#[derive(Clone, Debug, scale::Encode, scale::Decode, SpreadLayout, PackedLayout,scale_info::TypeInfo)]
pub struct Voter {
weight: u32,
voted: bool,
delegate: Option<AccountId>,
vote: Option<i32>,

/// Defines the storage of your contract.
/// Add new fields to the below struct in order
/// to add new static storage fields to your contract.
pub struct Ballot {
chair_person: AccountId,
voters: HashMap<AccountId, Voter>,
proposals: Vec<Proposal>

impl Ballot {
pub fn new(proposal_names: Option<Vec<String>> ) -> Self {

// get chair person address
let chair_person = Self::env().caller();

// create empty propsal and voters
let mut proposals: Vec<Proposal> = Vec::new();
let mut voters = HashMap::new();

// initialize chair person's vote
voters.insert(chair_person, Voter{
delegate: None,
vote: None,

// ACTION : Check if proposal names are provided.
// * If yes then create and push proposal objects to proposals vector

Self {

/// default constrcutor
pub fn default() -> Self {

pub fn get_chairperson(&self) -> AccountId {

pub fn get_voter(&self, voter_id: AccountId) -> Option<&Voter>{

pub fn get_voter_count(&self) -> usize{
self.voters.len() as usize

/// the function adds the provided voter id into possible
/// list of voters. By default the voter has no voting right,
/// the contract owner must approve the voter before he can cast a vote
pub fn add_voter(&mut self, voter_id: AccountId) -> bool{

let voter_opt = self.voters.get(&voter_id);
// the voter does not exists
if voter_opt.is_some() {
return false

self.voters.insert(voter_id, Voter{
delegate: None,
vote: None,
return true

/// given an index returns the name of the proposal at that index
pub fn get_proposal_name_at_index(&self, index:usize) -> &String {
let proposal = self.proposals.get(index).unwrap();
return &

/// returns the number of proposals in ballet
pub fn get_proposal_count(&self) -> usize {
return self.proposals.len()

/// adds the given proposal name in ballet
/// to do: check unqiueness of proposal,
pub fn add_proposal(&mut self, proposal_name: String){
vote_count: 0,

pub fn give_voting_right(&mut self, voter_id: AccountId) {
let caller = self.env().caller();
let voter_opt = self.voters.get_mut(&voter_id);